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540                                     THE IRON INDUSTRY.
Horde, Union, Hoesch, Sehalke, Bochumer Verein, Krupp, Gutehoffnungshutte, Phoenix, Eheinische, and Deutsche Kaiser.
In. iron ore, Westphalia occupies a very subordinate position. A small amount of blackband is raised, containing 35 per cent, of carbon and 28 per cent, of iron, mainly in the form of carbonate, but the quantity is inconsiderable. Sixty per cent, of the ore comes from the Siegen, the Lahn and Lothringen, and the remainder from over sea. Spain contributes 20 per cent, of the total ore smelted, and Sweden 15 per cent. The supply from the Siegen is spathic ore, which is roasted before using; it contains 35 per cent, of iron and is described in the account of that district. The ores from the Lahn and from Lothringen are also described in the proper place. The Minette ore brought to the Euhr is richer than the average. The composition runs as follows: .Fe, 32 to 38 per cent.; Si02, 6 to 8 per cent.; CaO, 10 to 18 per cent. The usual furnace burden in Westphalia carries 35 to 40 per cent, of this ore, 35 to 40 per cent, of Swedish (Grangesberg or Qellivare) and 10 per cent, of spathic ore from Siegerland or brown ore from Nassau, the remainder being cinder, pyrites residue, etc.
Many well-known steel works of this part of the country are not of the type familiar to American metallurgists. They are produced by slow accretions rather than by one comprehensive plan, and it is seldom that.any improvement involves the destruction of existing plant. Oftentimes there is complete discordance between the equipment of separate departments of the same plant, and a new and up-to-date blast furnace will be running alongside a legacy of 1840. A massive new blooming mill will be found supplying small finishing mills that hold together only by the force of habit, while the most economical steam engine will be operated in conjunction with one abandoned by James Watts. These conditions obtain sometimes in America, but they are incidental and temporary, existing only during a period of reconstruction, while on the Continent they are typical and almost universal in the old plants of Westphalia.
The cost of pig-iron made from Spanish ores is given by Kirch-hoff at $13.75 per ton. The large quantity of ore imported of this kind would lead to the conclusion that the cost of basic pig-iron is nearly as high, but this ore is used almost entirely by two works, Krupp's and Bochum, these being the only large producers of acid